Satoshi Nakamoto is an alias. On October 31, 2008, he published a document with a plan for a “peer-to-peer public ledger,” an international economic structure based on blockchain evidence instead of faith. Cryptocurrencies are now talked about a lot because of how the world’s economies work. More than a century later, some countries are even looking into and building their own virtual currencies.
The cryptocurrency, which is the core database system of BTC (BTC), has already been studied and used in a wide range of situations, such as operations management, transportation, cross-enterprise financial management, investment management, decentralized or exclusive, and so much more.
The goal of this essay is to give people who are new to Btc a detailed understanding of it, including the cultural and scientific environment in which it was created, important events from its past, how well it works, explanations of its unique qualities, and how to participate in this new financial system.
At the end of the assessment, a visitor should have a more nuanced view of one of the most exciting economic and financial changes of the modern era.
The history of Bitcoin goes back to the year 2000:
Even though the story usually starts with Satoshi delivering a policy document on Halloween 2008, there is an important part of Bitcoin’s history that is rarely talked about, but is important to know if you want to understand it as a long-running technological and social revolution. A tour of Bitcoins will start with a look at the cultural and scientific trends that led up to its creation. When looking at the past, present, and future of fiat currencies, it helps to study such currents.
The idea behind Bitcoin:
Even though Bitcoin is centralized, it may seem strange to say that it has a philosophy. However, the early supporters of digital currency were mostly techies, libertarians, and virtual currency. In the end, where Bitcoin came from and how it grew up in this society helped define its goals, traits, and direction. When Satoshi’s idea for Cryptocurrency was announced, only a small group of cryptographers and computer engineers disagreed with it and put in a small amount of money. Most of these people did research on cryptocurrencies in the 1980s and 1990s. Some people thought that Btc was just the first step in a series of tests that would lead to the creation of financial systems that put people’s freedom and privacy first. If you go back a long way in history, you’ll see that Bitcoin’s impact on development is mostly due to how it was put into place compared to 2 different groups.
In 1988, a theorist named Max More published a set of written principles that described a “ever-changing structure of principles and morals for consistently enhancing human circumstance” by using new technologies like nanotechnology, machine learning, automation, gene therapy, space travel, and much more. Extropians are people who design and test these kinds of technologies only to help people and keep a strictly scientific, non-relativist view of the world. One of the main goals of the community as a whole has been to improve life through cryopreservation, thought, and other means.
This kind of libertarian socialist philosophy brought together so many researchers and visionaries who talked about their ideas on the first internet message boards. From the late 1980s to the mid-1990s, Extropians tried out ideas for digital currencies, concept platforms, futures markets, reputation systems, and other things that are now part of the crypto area. Nick Szabo and Hal Finney were two bitcoin pioneers who were part of the extropian community.
“Anonymity is important for a fair economy in this digital age. The ability to choose what to tell the system is thought to be privacy.”
– From “A Cypherpunk’s Manifesto” by Eric Hughes
Like the extropians, the cypherpunks came together because they believed that new ideas were important for making the world a better place. Cyberpunk is a type of literary fiction that often shows a time when a growing global network rules the world with the help of monitoring devices that are everywhere. The characters are usually programmers or other people trying to survive in a bad place.
The cypherpunks got their name from philosophers John Brunner, William Gibson, and Bruce Sterling, who thought that the novels of John Brunner and William Gibson could happen if politics and technology kept getting better. They thought that as digital computer networks grow and are controlled by politicians and businesses, democracy and freedom will be lost bit by bit. The people who made up the cypherpunks were security researchers, software engineers, and technologists who were determined to come up with ways to protect personal rights in the face of a possible security state.
In contrast to the extropians, the cypherpunks were interested in a specific set of technologies that involved encrypted communications, such as private chat and digital currency. This cypherpunks philosophy was the only reason why so many experiments with digital currency took place in the 1990s and early 2000s. Cryptocurrency grew out of the dirt of a society like this one.
Bitcoin’s predecessors in technology:
To understand Btc, you have to stop thinking of it as a single, original idea and instead see it as a brilliant combination of ideas that worked where others had failed. Satoshi wanted to make a network that didn’t need trust and would last for many years. Instead of starting from scratch with a new method, he compared it to research that had already been done on embedded environments, economic encryption, and cybersecurity. This book will explain how “cryptocurrency” works on a basic level. This book will now talk about some digital money projects that came before BTC and changed it.
Using public keys to do crypto:
For decades, decrypting messages with cryptography, also called “total secrecy innovation,” required many people to work together on a single encryption key. This kind of encryption is called “public key cryptography.” With this strategy, the difficulty of the public key was always a problem. In the past, face-to-face meetings with the help of a trusted courier have been used. This method was not only insecure in many ways, but it also couldn’t be used on a large scale.
In the 1970s, asymmetric key encryption, which is also called public-key cryptography, became popular as a new way to send secrets. In this set-up, each person will have a set of secret keys. Alice will use Bob’s public key for encryption whenever she wants to send Bob a secure connection. Then, Bob will use his secret key to figure out what Alice is trying to say. In this method, no one has to choose a secret key ahead of time. Alice can even use her secret key to send a secure message to Bob using his public key. This way, Bob and anyone else who has access to Bob’s public key can verify that the message is real.
This combination of cryptographic schemes and cryptographic algorithms is the basis of what we now call “cryptography,” but it has been protecting the world’s network connections and procedures for many years. This is an important part of systems that use digital money.
The Cryptography Battle:
It’s important to remember that in the 1970s, the UK Government Communications Agency and two U.S. academics, Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman, came up with cryptosystem almost right away. The government didn’t want people to have access to private information systems like cryptosystems because it would throw off the balance of power. When the WWW became popular in the 1990s, prices for internet activities and e-commerce went up, so the government tried to stop people from using cryptography, citing safety and illegal behavior as reasons.
The Crypto Battles are an informal name for a period of conflict between political groups, business leaders, and the creators of new technology paradigms, which is still going on. Btc predicted that there would be a global banking market that was not well organized, and that is exactly what is happening.
Cash on the Internet:
David Chaum may be the most influential person in this crypto community. His groundbreaking work on cryptocurrencies platforms started in the 1980s, when the internet was just getting started and before Www. Chaum wrote “Undetectable Computerized Email, Exchange Addressing, and Virtual Pseudonyms” in 1981. This was a groundbreaking article in the field of web security that made it possible for techniques like Tunnel to be made. Chaum wrote “Blind Signatures for Untraceable Payments” in 1982. It was a seminal paper that explained a transaction that could not be tracked and was meant to influence future work on cryptocurrencies.
With the rise of online banking, Chaum created the eCash finance system to bring the privacy of cash and coins into the digital world. In 1989, Chaum started Digi Cash. The electronic Cash standard was made by Chaum and his colleagues in Amsterdam. Chaum couldn’t get enough help from retailers and bankers to finish the building without going bankrupt, so he went out of business in 1998.
Electronic Cash broke new ground in the field of electronic money, but it didn’t last. e. Payments were expected to be made with what are now called “central bank digital banknotes” and “stable coins,” which are digital goods backed by resources and given out by a neutral third party, like a bank or company.
E-gold was, in fact, a virtual financial system backed by precious metals stored in warehouses in Paris and the United Arab Emirates. It was set up in 1996 by Douglas Jackson and Barry Downey. E-gold, which was priced in grams and had the potential to send money quickly and internationally, suggested a new online bank. However, the idea was stopped by serious penalties and systemic problems. The E-gold market was controlled by a remote database run by a single company. This was a flaw in the system’s design and could cause problems if there were a fight between administrators or the economy collapsed.
At first, setting up an account on the E-gold network was very easy, so people used the money to do many illegal things. Jackson and his team tried to stop criminals from using E-gold, but in the end, they were found guilty of running an illegal merchant accounts business, and the company was shut down. eCash was an electronic money strategy that worked with the money market. E-gold, on the other hand, was a separate financial sector that existed even without government approval or involvement. Around this time, the US government was worried about how easy it was for people to use public-key encryption and protect their online activity. When it came to dealing with different communication systems, companies like E-gold had the same kinds of problems. Most of the legal fights that broke out over competing cryptocurrencies right now are still going on.
Peer-to-peer electronic currency in the Cypherpunk style:
Even though the way cryptocurrency was done in the past influenced how electronic money was made, the people who made it aren’t very connected to society. Chaum, for example, did not like the cypherpunk philosophy very much. On the other hand, the cryptocurrency projects that came before BTC were made by people in the country and can be seen as direct predecessors to BTC. Satoshi Nakamoto’s decision to make Bitcoins was influenced, either directly or indirectly, by many ideas and deployments.
In 1992, IBM scientists Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor started looking for ways to protect developing online services like email from Session hijacking, denial-of-service attacks, and spam messages. In their article “Pricing through Processing or Combating Junk Mail” the authors talked about a way for an internet user to answer a crypto challenge by doing some mental work. The author will then add a POW to the message to show that the answer is correct. Even though this process has a low processing cost, it would be enough to stop spamming. A “trapdoor” in the method will make it possible for a centralized government to answer the riddle right away without doing anything.
Adam Back, a 26-year-old graduate student and active cypherpunk, told the cypherpunk emailing group about a similar idea called “Hash cash” in 1997. This set-up also didn’t have a trap door, a sovereign government, or a focus on cryptographic riddles. The procedure was more about hashing than anything else. Hashing is the process of turning every piece of evidence, no matter what form it takes, into a unique string of characters of a certain length. Small changes to the original data will eventually lead to a new hash, making it easy to validate that the data is correct. For example, the text “What is Btc?” encrypted with SHA-256 gives the following hexadecimal value.
In Hashcash, the sender encrypts the email content, such as the location of the recipient, the defender’s address, the time a text was sent, and so on, using only a unique word called a “nonce” until a new hash begins with a set number of zero bits. So the transmitter can’t find the right hash right away, users should hash the message content multiple times with a random nonce until they find a good combination. Like Dwork and Naor’s method, this one needs computer resources to make a POW.
Back planned to use Hashcash for more than just stopping spam, as the name suggests. On the other hand, the sender didn’t get anything out of these proof-of-work units, and they can’t be sent. This makes them a weak form of electronic currency. Even though technology was getting better and making it easier and faster to gather evidence, the money might have been prone to high inflation. On the other hand, Back’s Hashcash will encourage the use of proof-of-work in different policy payment network platforms and Btc predecessors.
Wei Dai, a well-known cypherpunk, came up with the idea of B-money in 1998 as an alternative to P2P banking markets for doing business on the internet outside of the traditional banks that are controlled by the government and run by industry administrators. This system will allow for the creation of good money, the use of collective bargaining, and the use of an arbitration system to settle disagreements.
Dai talks about two posts. Dai’s first idea was to replace the centralized council’s control over a distributed system with a sign-up system for networks of anonymous competitors. These competitors would be identified by public-key cryptography identifiers. In a multi-stage competition to make virtual money, a station will have to solve a math problem and post the answers (a piece of hard evidence) on the internet. The number of investments that will be given will be estimated based on how much it costs to process data for a basket of basic goods and services.
When Alice wanted to do business with Bob, she had to send a transactional signal to the infrastructure, which included the money and Bob’s encrypted message addresses. Dai also saw that the first idea couldn’t solve a problem with two parts, since Alice could invest the same goods with both Bob and Carol at the same time. Dai’s second suggestion was that a small group of competitors called “workstations” should keep a public blockchain instead of everyone having a record of transactions. Normal users, on the other hand, only checked to see if the server had finished the operations. The web server can put a small amount of money into a separate bank account. This money will be used as a tax or an incentive if bad things happen. This is similar to how solid evidence is used in existing blockchains to build trust and stop fraud.
Even though Dai’s plan for B-money hasn’t been carried out in any way, it’s amazing how similar it is to Bitcoins, especially in terms of its blockchain network and Pow-based virtual currency. The main difference was whether or not B-currency money was tied to the price of a certain commodity. This was the first version of what might be called a new cryptocurrency today.
A touch of gold:
Szabo is one of the most important people in the development of Bitcoin and blockchain technology. He was an official member of both the extropian and cypherpunk movements before working on Bitcoin and blockchain technology.
Szabo is a generalist who is very good at many things, such as programming, encryption, and law. Szabo’s North Star is his idea of a free-trade world that is not ruled by corporations or nation-states. In 1994, he showed that digital signatures were a key structural part of international e-commerce. He did this by showing how electronic agreements could be signed and controlled using codes instead of local laws.
Soon, he realized that he had missed a key part: money that can be used in these kinds of transactions but is not real. After seeing a number of payment network projects fail, Szabo decided to try something new that might work where others had failed. During a tour of cash, Szabo found that real money, like these chunks of physical gold, could be used as a basis for new web money. Such investment money must be digital, rare, and very hard to copy, but it couldn’t rely on authorized third-party candidates to keep it safe and measure it. In a way, it’s like an electronic metal.
Bit Gold didn’t work as well as money because it couldn’t be changed back. Each unique piece could only be traded for an exact piece with the same value. This is also important for every coin to be able to compete. By 2015, the value of a piece of Bit Precious Metals mining will be the same as the value of a piece of Bit Gold mining from 2005. This is because the price of processing will go down as equipment gets better. Szabo proposed a standard solution that would include a safe, trustworthy, and public banking system that can track Bit Gold production over time and always package solid evidence tokens into equal units of value. This would create a stable way to pay for things.
But Sybil attacks will be able to happen on this platform, which could cause the network to break. Szabo said that any possible system break could be fixed by honest players staying in their network or by clients automatically siding with it because that’s what the cultural agreement says. Even though Satoshi explained how Bitcoin worked in early 2008, Szabo was already making plans for Bit Gold. After Bitcoin came out, he stopped working on Bit Gold. He said that Cryptocurrency had fixed the problems with Bit Gold and other online payment systems by combining them into a network that just worked.
How Bitcoin got started:
Even though many articles and talks have already been written and given about the history of Bitcoin, for the benefit of citizens, only the most important events in the history of digital currencies will be discussed, along with how they fit into the larger story of cryptocurrency.
By putting his eight-page plans for a new cryptocurrency in an address book, Satoshi invited cryptographers, software engineers, and people who know how to send money over the internet to meet and talk about the idea. Even though Satoshi had already written most of the BTC code before the white paper came out, they made it public so that competitors on the internet could look at it. Bitcoin has always been a group of researchers and supporters who have built and used an open-source program. On November 8, 2008, the currency was released on Source Forge, which is a site for making software that anyone can use. It was the moment when BTC turned into a group effort.
As the world went through its worst economic downturn since the Great Depression, people came up with new ideas for an economic model that didn’t depend on the government. The first Bitcoin transaction after Bitcoin’s creation happens on January 12, 2009, when Nakamoto and cryptography researcher Finney do transaction 170. People say that Finney was one of the first people to use Satoshi to make Bitcoin right after the system went live.
Pizza Day in Bitcoins:
On May 22, 2010, a developer in Florida named Laszlo Hanyecz agreed to pay 10,000 Bitcoin for pizza. This was the first time anyone knew of that Cryptocurrency was used to pay for a good or service. A few months ago, the first amount of money that could be used with digital currency was just set. Only at the time of the transaction, it was thought that the 2 large Papa John’s pizzas would cost about $25. In March 2021, these two pizzas would have been worth more than $5 trillion. People laugh about Hanyecz’s payment now, but it’s important to remember how new Blockchain technology was at the time.
People often bring up Hanyecz’s famous purchase when talking about how digital currencies are used as a means of exchange, as an example of how the huge change in the price of digital currencies over time seems to point to their use as a useful good. With only 21 million available, people may want to use this as a long-term investment, or “HODL,” as the company calls it. But Hanyecz’s first sale showed that Btc can be used as a digital way for people to pay each other.
The Bitcoin revolution may have been the start of the mining industry:
In the early years of the Bitcoin economy, the only way for people to interact with the system and earn Bitcoins was through the refining process. Mining is the process by which the system constantly verifies propagated operations and stores them in the shared database as connected “chains” of user information. This creates a decentralized digital history of events that can be tracked over time. The Bitcoin network is based on the fact that producers are paid in BTC for making sure the network stays up and running. This is also how the Btc dollar’s fiat system works.
The first show of Slush Pool was on November 27, 2010. The first processing group for The Bitcoins Company. Slush Pool let people who wanted to make money process funds together to make BTC and get block rewards based on how much work they did. It let people who didn’t have a lot of processing power take part in the activities of the channel and make Bitcoins in the process.
Since then, the construction industry has grown from a small-scale business to a huge, fuel-based business with a small number of companies providing most of the hashing power. Even though the idea of cryptocurrency has grown a lot since the creation of other digital currencies around the world, Slush Pool was an important step in the creation and spread of the Bitcoin blockchain.
The Silk Road:
“It was supposed to give people the chance to make decisions about the Silk Road.”
Any book about cryptocurrency would have been missing a part about Silk Road. Ross Ulbricht, who went by the name “Dread Pirate Roberts,” opened Silk Road in February 2011. It was an online store on the dark web that could only be accessed through the Tor private browsing mode tool and paid for with Cryptocurrency. The website was meant to be a free, open market where people could do business with each other without rules getting in the way.
In addition to being a place for business, the web was also a community where people argued about freedom, symmetric encryption, and other topics from different points of view. The website had a probability model and an automatic trust mechanism to make it harder for people to lie. After its platform became a safe place for illegal drug trade and other types of organized crime, homeland security began to look into what it was doing. On October 2, 2013, Ulbricht was arrested as a result. He is currently serving multiple life sentences with no chance of getting out.
Silk Road is a turning point in the history of digital currencies. Events like the notorious markets have helped spread the idea that BTC is a favorite currency for doing bad things. It started out as a symbol of a democratic philosophy based on individual freedom and open trade, but over time it became the most notorious dark web in recent history. It’s important to remember that the US Officers Provider auctioned off almost 30,000 Bitcoin that were seized when Ulbricht was arrested. This gives digital currencies their basic legality. Taking into account the sad scene in Silk Road’s story, the platform showed how Block chain could be used to help people trade with each other on a stock exchange.
Unfortunately, the legal plans and activities on Silk Road, which included everything from art to clothes to handicrafts, made up a much smaller part of the economy. Gibson, a famous science fiction and cyberpunk author, once said, “The public looks for ways to use things.”
Satoshi Nakamoto left the BTC program on April 26, 2011. Gavin Andresen and the fully accessible ecosystem took over overproduction. Up until that point, Satoshi, whoever he or she was, had basically just suggested that BTC be made. In retrospect, the identity of the creator was important to the success and longevity of the BTC team. If Satoshi had already been recognized for sure, it would have been inevitable, since government agencies have been dealing with illegal use of cryptocurrency for decades. PayPal’s decision to leave the program was important for Btc to stay true to its original goal of being a trust-free, decentralized, and strong banking market.
WikiLeaks and money that can’t be shut down:
Wikileaks is an investigative website that Julian Assange, an active cypherpunk, started in 2006. It has a tense relationship with the government. After leaking secret documents about unethical, secret actions by governments and international organizations, it has made it harder for authorities all over the world to do their jobs. Wikileaks started buying Cryptocurrency funds on June 14, 2011, after Google Wallet stopped the charity’s transactions and Credit and Debit Cards stopped loans. It did make sense: Wikileaks wanted to be a strong example of the Fourth Landowner’s commitment to the truth in the face of repression and pressure from the powers that be. Btc set up a worldwide, transnational chart of accounts for the suppression of free speech to add to what was already being done.
Nakamoto was worried about the use of BTC on Wikileaks, which was an important thing to do. In a 2010 article, they said, “It would’ve been lovely to gain this recognition in some other environment.” The balance between these two groups made it clear to the public that digital currency can be used as a way to protest. Assange was arrested on April 11, 2019, which showed how dangerous it is to have a public figure at the head of a campaign.
The rise and fall of Mt. Gox:
Peer-to-peer computer programmer Jed McCaleb started the company in July 2010. He then sold it to Mark Karpelès. Mt. Gox became the biggest digital currency exchange in the country. At its peak in 2013 and 2014, it handled almost 70% of all payments on the channel. Even though there was a security hole, all payments were stopped on February 7, 2014. Soon after that, Mt. Gox lost power, and since March 2021, thieves stole 744,408 Btc worth about $43 billion. There are plans to pay back the BTC that went missing from Mt. Gox customers, but the story is far from over. Several people who lost money because of what happened with Mt. Gox have filed claims to get their money back, but these payouts have already been put off more than once.
As a result of a security hack, the collapse of the once-dominant market has become a Tacoma Reduces Bridge tragedy for the cryptocurrency industry. This shows that centralized ownership of cryptocurrencies poses serious structural risks. In some ways, it’s a cautionary tale for anyone who wants to get into the cryptocurrency business. Do we trust other people to protect our things, or do we trust ourselves? This has become an example of the problems and risks that come with building government services around a valuable good that is already spread out.
Bit License and cryptocurrency laws in New York:
Innovation and its acceptance tend to move at the same pace as laws. Business owners and people who make new technologies often have problems with government regulators. And if there is any question about whether the old standards still work with the new method.
When it comes to cryptocurrencies, the traditional and the modern will always clash. This is because cryptocurrencies are completely anonymous and run on a basic set of rules that don’t depend on government oversight. Between the end of the Silk Road global market and the end of Mt. Gox, government agencies started putting strict limits on businesses that dealt with cryptocurrency exchanges in any kind of administrative role.
On July 17, 2014, the US Department of Banking and Finance came up with the idea of the “BitLicense.” A business license that puts strict limits on cryptocurrency businesses in the city of New York that store, trade, or provide data services to customers.
This license, which was written by Benjamin Lawsky, New York’s first commissioner of investment banking, was heavily criticized by those in the sector because it had very strict and expensive rules. Because the cost of getting a license will make it hard for small and medium-sized businesses to make sure everyone is following the rules. Because on August 8, 2015, when the Bit License went into effect, ten well-known cryptocurrencies left New York in what the York City Daily News called the “Big Cryptocurrency Migration.”
The NYDFS is trying to change the BitLicense right now, but the way the policy is set up shows how provincial and national governments should help or hinder industrial and cultural growth. The New York Department of Financial Services (NYDFS) released the limited BitLicense, which is a version of their plan for regulating cryptocurrencies in 2020. With such a limited BitLicense, PayPal started selling BTC on its network that same year.
Even though cryptocurrency businesses have been around since the beginning, the way the government regulates them now is all over the United States is a mess with little consistency. Government agencies have now taken the right steps and put them into place. In 2017, the Stock Exchange Committee fought against cryptocurrency exchanges. The Department of the Institute of Chartered Accountants gave the green light for U.S. banks to start storing virtual currencies in 2020.
The network getting smaller:
An independent payment network is a good way to work with major worldwide payment processors like MasterCard because it can handle the many daily operations that are part of our lives. In its current form, BTC hasn’t been able to handle as many transactions per second as Mastercard’s foundation blockchain could. After programmers and architects in the field started to argue about how to scale digital currencies, a lot of scaling options were put forward.
On January 14, 2016, Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja gave a paper about the Lightning Network. The Lightning Network is a way for Bitcoin to scale up, allowing payments to happen off-chain and then be resolved and cryptographically validated on-chain. This could make it easier for this core blockchain to do its job while also making payments faster and easier. As of March 2018, the network is already running on Bitcoin’s platform, but it has continued to grow into a key part of the architecture of cryptocurrencies. The Lightning Connectivity, according to its websites, allows “fund transfers” that are “lightning-fast bitcoin payments without worrying about transaction verification points of time.” But because BTC has become a measure of wealth instead of a way to buy things, transfer rates and prices may become less important.
Michael Saylor, who started Micro Strategy, talked about how well the company bought 38,250 BTC in September 2020 by using the main blockchain for investments. On the other hand, the business sent out 18 transactions on the Digital currencies blockchain and 78,388 transactions outside of its main network.
The Fight for Bitcoin’s Ability to Grow:
Unlike Infinite Scalability, which is a clear solution that could, in theory, make large electronic payments possible.
Even though the internet has grown, the main Blockchain is still being made bigger. The owners of the Bitcoins channel, the people who built it, and the organizations that use it are having a heated discussion about possible ways to make it scalable. Whereas a full look at the so-called “BTC Scalability Battles” is not what this tutorial is about.
Supporters of making the BTC key length longer said that increasing the number of payments that can be verified in a block would increase the amount of money that can be sent through the channel. Others said that increasing the length of the key will make a big difference in the amount of data in the infrastructure as a whole. In two closed-door meetings with multinational companies, called the Hk Settlement and the York City Accord, a decision was made about how to move forward.
The Bitcoin community split on August 1, 2017, when people who liked big blocks changed the code and started making a new chain, which is now called BCH. The discussion about scalability showed how hard it is to agree on important system upgrades on a distributed platform when so much money is at stake. It was only a matter of time before people had different ideas about how to develop Cryptocurrency without Satoshi.
In 2017, Bitcoins were split into BTC and BCH.
In late 2017, Cryptocurrency Gold (BTG) and other cryptocurrency hard forks came out. In the end, Digital Currency hard split in late 2018 into BCH and Bitcoin SV. The Need for Opinions concept, which led to the creation of the Internet, is now used to build open-source software projects. This makes the process more difficult when the issue program is used to create a global economic model.